Denis Kertz, ©1994
My cycling equipment is a Miyata 618 touring frame with 36
hole, 14 gauge spoked wheels fitted with 700x28 Continental Super Sport tires
and 18 speed Shimano SIS with bar end shifters.†
A week prior to this trip my frame was a Miyata Triple Cross hybrid but
the local bike shop spotted a crack in the frame while putting on a new
headset.† Fortunately, they had the
Miyata touring frame in stock and they transferred all of the components from
my old frame to the new frame.† My
bicycle is equipped with four
My trip estimate is 1000 miles although it is hard to figure the mileage given that back roads will be used as much as possible.† I actually estimate 900 miles but factor in a 10% contingency and round up to 1000 miles.† I plan on riding 70 miles per day which translates into 14.3 days.† I plan to take 16 days but weather and other commitments delay my trip by a day.† I have never toured before so this is a new experience for me.† I typically ride about 125 miles per week with 15 mile rides during the week and a 60 mile ride on the weekend.† I have done centuries on my road bike but have never done back-to-back long rides so I am uncertain how my body will respond to daily long rides on a loaded touring bike.† For that reason, I plan to start the tour with easy days the first couple of days, not wishing to strain my body and forcing an early finish.† I take a tent and sleeping bag with intent to camp along the way.† However, I do not carry any cooking equipment.† Cooking does not interest me and I figure this will save weight and time and I plan to eat at restaurants along the way.
The weather is overcast and threatening this morning.† I finally complete packing my bicycle but I donít leave until 1:00.† However, my plan is to do only about 50 miles today since I donít want to over do the first day and pay for it the rest of the trip.† I immediately notice that my front wheel shimmies.† Fortunately, I had just read about this in my touring guide and knew this was due to some load imbalance.† I tried to correct this with some adjustments, taking my spare tire out of the front pannier (no help) and adjusting the position of my rear panniers which helps some.† This helps some but not much but I continue on anyway.
My first dayís route is a route to the western end of
Iím not sure where I will stay this first night so I
decide to head towards Huntley, figuring I can always find a motel if camping
accommodations are not available.† I stop
around 5:30 at a foodmart in Huntley for a chocolate chip muffin and a Coke
since I havenít had anything to eat since I left.† I chat a few minutes with three kids on BMX
bicycles and tell them I am riding around
This campground is indeed the campground near the
Although my goal for the day was 50 miles I ended up doing 70 miles.† I hope this is not overdoing it the first day but only time will tell.† This day also established a recurring pattern of adding a number of additional miles just to get to the campsite at the end of the day.
After I pack† up in
the morning, I eat 2 cups of granola with milk (powdered milk) figuring this
will keep me going until I find a restaurant.†
Iím off around 9:00 and continue on my
As I pull into the western end of
After some difficulty finding my route once out-of-town, I
finally take M which was labeled with a detour marker and find it is open and I
am on my way.† The terrain is now more
rolling as I am moving towards the southern Kettle Moraine area.† I hope to find a place to camp in Kettle
Moraine although it is a Saturday and no one in Delavan knew anything about
camping in the area.† Iím following
recommended roads from my
As I ride through Kettle Moraine, I donít see any
campground signs.† At mile 85, I stop at
a foodmart in
I dump my panniers in tall grass in a secluded area and head back into town to eat.† Along the way I notice a swimming spot on a lake which I decide will serve fine as a shower after dinner.† I eat a ham sandwich, a 6Ē tuna sandwich, and a large (3 scoops) ice cream.† Heading back to camp, I stop at the swimming hole but I find the swimming hole closes at 8:00 and it is now 7:55.† So I quickly park my bike, take off my shoes, and jump in the water for a quick shower.
Back in camp, I set up as a storm starts rolling in with lightning in the distance.† Shortly after 9:00 I climb into my tent and it rains for about 20 minutes along with lightning.† The rain stops but it rains off and on the rest of the night.† This is another recurring theme for most of the trip - it only rains at night when I am in the tent.
For the day I rode almost 100 miles.† So much for my plan to take it easy the first couple of days and ease into this touring thing.† But I am encouraged that I did almost a century on my second day without feeling very strained.
The rain has stopped and the morning is nice and cool.† A guy comes by in a truck and lets his 2 dogs out for a morning run.† Another guy stops by to release some raccoons he has trapped in a housing area.† He has 3 traps, one with 3 baby raccoons, one with the mother, and one with probably a male raccoon but it isnít clear whether this might be the father.† The baby raccoons treat this all as an adventure and are in no hurry to exit their trap.† However, once the mother coon is out, she heads into the woods and the babies quickly follow.† The final coon is not real happy with his situation and makes threatening moves as the trapper attempts to release him but eventually he moves on his way too.
After my 2 cups of granola and packing up, I decide to
head north to Delafield for breakfast rather than back into
Heading north again on C, the terrain is becoming more hilly.† I have to walk up 3-4 hills and just barely make a couple of others.† My legs are probably tired from yesterdayís near century but itís obvious I need a couple of lower gears for the hills.† I start to cringe whenever I see a hill and breathe a sigh of relief whenever it is downhill.† I also notice that when I first see a hill it always looks much steeper than it is.† Then as I get close to the hill it looks much more reasonable.† Nevertheless, this doesnít make climbing them easy.
I wander northeast on various backroads (Peterson,
Kilbourn, Funk, E, Emerald, CC, Power Hill,
After setting up camp, I head to the restaurant at the service station which was just ahead before I turned off to the campground.† Unfortunately, this means I will have to climb back up the hill on my return but at least this will be on an unloaded bike. †I have a chicken special which is just OK.† On the way back, the ranger gives me bike store information on a piece of paper which I stick in my jersey and promptly wash as I rinse my jersey that evening.† Fortunately, the information remains legible.
After cleaning up, I pull out my maps to review my
situation.† I conclude that the routes I
am taking are zig zagging too much and adding non-progress miles.† I decide that my progress over the next two
days will decide whether I can complete my tour as planned or whether I need to
plan an alternative.† One alternative
would be to head west to visit a friend who has just moved to the
Today is the first day I encounter any mosquitoes, brought out by the recent rains plus the woody area of the campground.† I also see a guy and his SO blowing up what looks to be a rubber raft.† Iím surprised they would have a rubber raft and then realize this is a sleeping mattress!† I have never seen one this thick.
My legs felt a little tire starting out today but not at all bad considering the nearly 170 miles I covered the first two days.† My only problem was handling the short, steep uphills.
I pack and head for breakfast at the same place I had
dinner last night.† Breakfast is OK - 3
large pancakes and oatmeal but they have no brown sugar.† My legs feel tired and I wonder how they will
fare today.† I call the
I start out on another recommended backroad (K) but when
it intersects with 83 I decide its time to start using the direct approach to
make more progress miles.† This is fine
since 83 has a nice 3 foot wide shoulder and there is little traffic.† When it turns into 175, I stay on it but in a
short while the nice shoulder disappears and I begin to think about options.† I move off onto the gravel shoulder a couple
of times when traffic is coming in both directions but handling is difficult
and risky with my loaded touring bike.†
Fortunately, after about 5 miles the nice should reappears and I stay on
175 all the way to
At the edge of
As I review my gearing situation, I grow worried that I
could spend a lot of time looking for a 14-32 freewheel without any guarantee
that I would find one anyway.† I would
most likely have to detour into
I continue on 175 until it intersects 55, a main
drag.† I take 55 out-of-town as it heads
east and then north around the eastern shore of
At the end of
The terrain from
I finish the day at 80+ miles with my legs feeling fine.† Hopefully, Iím getting my second wind.
It rains off and on over night but starts to clear up when I get up. †As I leave it starts to cloud up again and this pattern will continue for most of the day.
I pick up 55 west for 4-5 miles during ďrushĒ hour.† This is a bit hectic due to the nonexistent
shoulder.† Then I turn north on
I head northeast to skirt
Leaving lunch, I am now near
Itís beginning to look like it may take a century to get to a campsite near Peshtigo which was my tentative goal for the day.† After passing through Oconto, I pick up Y going north.† At about mile 85, I see the North Bay Shore Recreation Area, pull in, and discover campsites on the lake.† I pay $7.50 (actually only $6.50 since I donít have enough change) for a campsite with a pretty good view of the lake and an even better one just a short walk away.† I actually have difficulty paying my fee since the money slot in the depository is not that big and I had to use $1.50 in change.
The unfortunate point of this campsite is it is not near food.† The nearest towns, Peshtigo and Oconto, both look about 5 miles away.† I choose Oconto, which is south and I had already passed through, and discover itís really about 8 miles and I end up with a round-trip of 18 miles for dinner, giving me my first century of the tour.
In town I can find only one restaurant, no (open) service
station (looking for a
Arriving back in camp with 104 miles, I take a quick dip in the late at the boat launch to serve as my shower.† Shortly after, it starts to rain and I retire to my tent.† Tomorrow is D-day.† I have made significant progress the last 2 days but I still have a long way to go.
I wake up to a cool, overcast morning and it looks like it
will rain today.† I walk out to the point
to get a few pictures, pack up, and leave about 8:00.† I head north on Y to Peshtigo (which is maybe
a mile closer to camp than Oconto), buy a
From Peshtigo, I head northeast on B to the Wisconsin/Michigan border and spend a few extra minutes wandering through the town of Marinette before I find the road to Michigan.† The road is four lanes and busy but labeled as a bike route.† That doesnít stop a guy in a van from honking at me (first of the trip).† Shortly, M35 splits off to the right.† This is the main highway to Escanaba.† I take it since I donít know any other route and it has a nice 3 foot wide shoulder.† There isnít all that much traffic so this looks like it will work OK.† What doesnít work OK is the constant fairly strong headwind.† This is going to be a slow day with a maximum speed of 17 mph!
There also arenít hardly any services along the way.† As I near the 50 mile mark, I spot a cafe and stop for lunch at about 1:45.† I have a burger and a 1919 root beer (1919 is the brand name) and just as I am about to leave I notice it has started to rain.† I delay my departure hoping the rain passes which it does in about 15 minutes.
Unfortunately, the headwind has picked up and itís even slower going.† Worse yet, the nice shoulder has deteriorated into cracked asphalt that is generally unfit to ride on.† Since there isnít that much traffic I ride on the road with an eye on my mirror and on oncoming traffic.† When traffic approaches from both sides, I move on to the gravel shoulder to be out of the way.† Thankfully, after about 11 miles, the shoulder is restored to rideable for the rest of the way.
The headwind continues to be a drag.† However, the scenery is nice with the left side of the road lined with trees as well as the right side with occasional views of the lake.† The road is flat the whole day but I still get to use the low gears because of the head wind.† When I stop my calf muscles quickly get tight and even hurt some.
As I near Escanaba, I spot a private campground with a
restaurant just across the street.† This
is tempting but I decide to tough it out.†
As I pull into the city, the road turns into a four lane with a
curb.† I pick up the
Itís cool when I get up so I put on my tights and jacket.† After some granola, I head out and quickly find a restaurant.† I have oatmeal and oat bran pancakes - the best pancakes of the trip.
Thereís still a headwind as Iím traveling north but that pretty much goes away when US2 turns east.† I decide to shoot for Manistique, 50 miles away, for lunch.† The road is inland now so there isnít a view of the lake.† When I reach Manistique I continue until I find a family restaurant and have a fish sandwich which is disappointing.† This is in contrast to the other family restaurants that have been generally good.
Starting after lunch, my legs feel really dead and it
takes a while to get them going but then they are fine.† Shortly thereafter, I spot a couple on
touring bicycles heading in the other direction.† These are the first tourers I have seen on the
trip and I will only see a couple of others the rest of the way.† When I get to
I stop at a store for ice cream and advice.† The guy says there are campsites 13 miles
down the road which will put me at the century mark.† I decide to go for it.† Iím also starting to realize that the more
miles I put in today the fewer I will need to reach my goal of
Eventually, I spot a couple of campgrounds but hold out
for the one on the lake.† I arrive about
7:00 CDT (which is 8:00
When all is said and done, I have ridden almost 110 miles
for the day.† While this is certainly
more than I had planned, I think this will end up benefiting me since tomorrow
will be a short ride to get to
In the early morning it rained some and the forecast doesnít look good.† A guy comments that I will get wet today as I leave the campground.† I say ďweíll see.Ē
I have only about 35 miles to travel so my plan is to make this my ďrestĒ day.† After about 8 miles I stop for breakfast and have the 3 largest pancakes of the trip plus oatmeal.† As I leave the proprietor says ďhope you donít get wet.Ē
My luck continues and the weather gets better as the day
continues and I never get wet.† As I get
closer to my destination, I start to hit some gradual hills, the first since
Around noon, I pull into
Now I have the rest of the day to relax!† I dump two of my panniers, load the other two
with camera equipment and some clothing and head for
Iím not really into shopping so I head back to the
mainland after a couple of hours.†
Apparently another couple who were on my trip out share my view and they
head back on the same ferry.† Everything
has cleared up completely now and you can see the
I eat at an Italian American restaurant and spring for the all-you-can-eat walleye/whitefish dinner which is good.
Itís been an easy, restful day and I am glad that I did the 100+ miles yesterday to make this possible.† Iím also feeling better about the trip now that I have broken the trip down into segments with my first segment completed handily on time.† I should be just over halfways distance wise and today is the eighth day of the trip.† My body appears to have handled the stress of loaded touring well without any knee or butt pains.† Tomorrow I head back for home.† However, itís still hard to predict exactly what the remaining mileage is at this point.† And this is the 4th of July weekend so I can expect some difficulty finding campsites the next two days.† But this is what adventuring is all about!
The morning is overcast and misting slightly as I pack
up.† I head to the bridge administration
building, pay $1 (cars are charged $1.50) and get a ride across the 5 mile
bridge, my bike in the back of a pickup truck.†
This will be the only mileage of the trip that I do not ride.† I stop at the restaurant next to
Early on I notice the scenery is reminiscent of home with farms, open fields, and rolling hills.† The latter cause me to do a fair amount of climbing and I wonder how long I will last.† The climbs are relatively short (quarter mile or less) but I normally use my lowest gear with some strain.† Iím glad I have my new freewheel or I probably would have done some walking today but Iím disturbed that Iím proceeding slowly.†† At times it feels like my brake is on.† The climbing peaks around Boyne Highlands (ski resort) and I have a nice runout of several miles from there.† This runout seems to be more descending than my climbing so I conjecture that my earlier slowness may have been gradual climbing.
After my runout traffic picks up considerably as several roads merge.† Picking up M119 leads me into Petoskey where I stop for lunch at Hardeeís.† Despite my climbing, my legs feel good and donít tighten up as they had been doing over lunch a few days ago.† I suspect that my half rest day has been beneficial for my legs.† I inquire how to connect back up with C81 in the restaurant but nobody knows this road by that name and my map doesnít show the road by that name.† However, this isnít a problem since I immediately see a sign for a left turn as I head south.† What is a problem is that the road immediately heads skyward and I have to climb a significant hill on a full stomach without a warm-up but my legs manage to make it.† I also notice that C81 appears to have been stitched together from existing county/side roads since there are several left/right turns on different road sections along the way.
More roller coaster hills and a runout brings me past
Almost immediately I spot
I wake up to a clear sky and itís already reasonably warm so I expect itís going to get really warm today.† I start with my tights but I donít expect them to last very long.† I eat breakfast at the cafe around the corner - oatmeal and pancakes - and order a couple of donuts to go.
Pulling out of town, I immediately hit a couple of climbs,
heading west to
At about the 45 mile mark, I stop at a foodmart for lunch
since itís not clear where the next restaurant lies.† Checking my maps (I picked up a Traverse
County map at the information center in Mackinaw City), Frankfort, due west on
Lake Michigan, looks like the best goal since there are several campgrounds in
the area.† I ask the cash register guy
who turns out to be a local cyclist how to best pick up
I had noted that the area coming into the foodmart looked flat but then I immediately hit a couple of climbs.† But then it stays flat and the route west is accompanied with a nice tailwind and little traffic.† But just when I think itís going to be flat all the way, I first descend a big hill, hitting 39 mph on free fall followed by probably the longest, steepest climb of the trip.† My legs are not quite up to the challenge and I walk about 40 yards of the steepest part of the hill and get back on my bicycle to climb the rest.† Then I pull into Benzonia not sure exactly where my first choice campground is.† I assume north as I recall from the directions and head that way.† Unfortunately, this takes me down a long hill which I have to reclimb to get back to the road I came west on and should have continued on!† I was not happy with myself and this wasted effort which I could have avoided by simply rechecking my directions.
The Betsie River Campground is easy to find and I pull in just ahead of a pickup camper.† Being well aware that this is Sunday on the 4th of July weekend, I make sure I get into the store just in case there is only a single campsite available.† Iím at about the 90 mile mark and a bicycle is not the vehicle to have to go scavenging around the countryside looking for a perhaps unavailable campsite.† As I fear, the hostess says everything is full but then says there is a campsite with a boat and camper where the owner did not make it.† Both the pickup camper and I say we only need a spot to park our bicycle/pickup to crash for the night.† Rather than fight, we quickly offer to share the campsite and we are both thankful and happy.† It turns out that the campsite is large enough for both of us despite the large boat and camper.† I set up camp in back of the boat/camper next to the woods and everything is fine.
I head about a mile into town for another large wet
burrito at the suggestion of the campground hostess and this burrito was even
better than last night.† Then I head into
Itís raining when I wake up so I go back to sleep for about another 45 minutes.† Itís still raining so I decide to eat some granola and pack inside the tent to be ready when it stops.† Then I decide to complete packing in the rain, head for breakfast a mile away, and hope the rain is done by the time I finish breakfast.† By the time I actually get to breakfast, the rain stops so my timing is a little off.
After my usual oatmeal and pancakes, I start off south on
M22 and immediately hit a long climb - not the way to start the day after a
full meal without any warm-up.† I have to
stop twice and rest before making it to the top.† This is a hill that is not too big for my
lowest gear and Iím sure I would have made it if I were warmed up
properly.† On my next climb, I stop half
way up to don my rain clothes which arenít needed since itís only drizzling a
little and my tights and windbreaker are fine for the weather.† At the top of this second long hill I catch
what looks like a good view looking back north except thereís a little too much
cloudiness.† At the top of the hill I
encounter some other cyclists who look like they are part of a supported
touring group.† I get a fair picture
looking south towards
After Onekama I turn west to catch Crescent Beach Road along the southern shore of Portage Lake back towards Lake Michigan where the hills ease off somewhat and then south on Lake Shore Road.† However, it has begun clouding up more and the air has turned cooler suggesting rain is imminent.† Iím not far from Manistee where I plan to stop for lunch when it starts pouring so I pull off under a tree (not so good since there is some lightning but there are a number of other trees around) and wait out the rain for about 15 minutes.† As I start again, a local has spotted me and offered me his front porch but I say ďno thanksĒ since itís only drizzling now and I wonít get any wetter.† I stop in Manistee for lunch at Hardeeís.† Like yesterday, I have a chicken sandwich followed by a vanilla shake.† These vanilla shakes are made with yogurt and are really good.
Pulling out from Manistee I head south on Maple then
Quarter Line Road but wonít get near the lake again until Ludington.† However, the ride is almost flat with only
some mild hills.† Near Ludington, I head
southwest on Fountain/Angling/Dewey and
As I pull into Pentwater I start to seriously think about
a motel for the night.† I stop to eat at
a restaurant and then ask about a motel.†
The host finds a vacancy nearby which I head for.† The lady is willing to let me have a single
for $58 (regular $65) but I decide at that rate I can camp at
I register for a campsite and discover I will be pitching my tent on sand!† My tent is also all wet on the inside floor since I hadnít thought to pack my tent in a garbage bag for protection.† But thatís not much of a problem since I wipe off the floor with my towel and the remaining dampness isnít a problem for my synthetic sleeping bag.† The rain continues to come down off and on so I retire to my tent.
For the day, I complete a little over 80 miles despite the weather.† I canít really complain about the weather since this is the first real rain while riding I have had in a week and a half.† Although it was beginning to look like I would make the trip without getting rained on, it was unrealistic to think rain would hold off for 2 weeks and it didnít.† The other interesting fact about this tour is that I have not had a flat tire yet.† I keep expecting one and I thought today might be the day my luck would run out.† With the marginal weather, it just seemed that a flat tire in the rain was just waiting.† As it is, I still havenít had a flat and I keep trying to not think about this for fear that I will jinx my good luck.
Since I reached Pentwater after crossing the
As I start to pack a guy who works for General Motors in
I head for breakfast where I had dinner the last night because they have an all-you-can-eat breakfast and then I head for the Laundromat to dry out my clothes from yesterdayís rain.† The place is busy and I have to wait about 15 minutes for a dryer.† I write my notes for yesterdayís ride while waiting.† Then I have a mild heart attack as I notice I am missing my bag of riding clothes that contains my alternate pair of cycling shorts/shirt/socks .† Fortunately, I find them where I had parked my bicycle for breakfast.
By the time Iím done drying my clothes, itís a little
after 10:00.† I head southeast around
Since the 4th of July weekend is over, I am surprised that the park campground is full but, since I am on a bicycle and obviously have no need for a ďstructuredĒ campsite, I get directed to an open sandy area to pitch my tent.† This is actually great.† Itís cheaper ($8) and I get to pick my spot and I pitch my tent in an area surrounded by 5 trees and end up with more privacy than if I had a regular campsite.† I unload, shower, and walk up the street along the waterway to the lake for some burritos and ice cream.† Then I walk out on the pier as many other folks are doing and get to watch a tanker pull into the waterway at dusk.
In the morning when I get up I check my bike.† I notice that the left dust cover on the front wheel was loose but there is not much I can do but push it back in.† This may have been causing my sluggish bike.† As I pack up a ranger from the nearby administration building quizzes me about my campsite.† I give him my story about being allowed to camp in this open area.† He still seems skeptical and asks to see my permit which I show to satisfy him.† I get the impression he does not feel someone should be allowed to camp that close to his building.† After I pack, I write my notes for yesterday and ask for breakfast recommendations.† I get directed to the DeeLite back in town where it turns out I have to head anyway.† The restaurant is packed so I sit at the counter and have my usual - oatmeal and pancakes.
After breakfast I start off, ask for directions and find
my way south out of town to catch
Once out of town, the ride is a pleasant one along nice
asphalt roads with little traffic and the bike seems to be riding better.† At about 37 miles I spot a restaurant on the
My new† map shows a
state park south of
Now at 90 miles, I have little choice but to head for
I get up, pack, have three cups of granola, and head for the beach to at least see some of Warren Dunes before I leave.† The very large beach area looks nice but this is early morning and there are only a few other people around.† There is one large dune but I suspect there are others.† I am dismayed to find a camping area on the beach front.† I would have loved to have camped here last night but had no idea this was an option.
I head south on Red Arrow highway and will be leaving
Continuing on US6, I notice the clouds darkening and the
air cooling and itís just a matter of time.†
When it starts to rain, I duck under an awning attached to a hardware
store in an area for dispensing propane.†
As I sit on some steps, it really pours for about 20 minutes and then
passes on.† Reviewing todayís ride, I
have been thinking that it is possible that I could make it all the way back to
After about a 30 minute delay, I start again.† When US6 heads north to join I80/I94, I
continue straight on Ridge, also called Business 6, and enter
Finally, I pick up
After a shower, I head for the car (after 116 miles Iím ready to drive) to pick up some food but the car wonít start.† I give it 3-4 healthy cranks and the engine doesnít even threaten to catch.† Finally, just when Iím thinking bike forever, the engine catches and Iím on my way.
For the day, I completed 116 miles, making this my first back-to-back centuries ever.† Earlier in the trip I completed 300 miles over the course of 3 days but the middle day was less than a century.
After unpacking, I weighed my bike and panniers with the following results:
Left front pannier
Right front pannier
Left rear pannier
Right rear pannier
Empty panniers (4)
Tent and sleeping bag
Bicycle with racks, pump, handlebar bag
From a reliability perspective, I finished the ride with no flat tires, one broken rear axle, and a loose front cone.† However, two days after finishing this tour, the left rear tire was flat, having developed a slow leak. I also discovered that I had a rear, right side spoke that had come loose at the hub flange.† My local bike shop has advised me that the flat spot in my front wheel could not be repaired so I need to replace the front wheel.† My body finished the trip without any knee or bun difficulties.
In retrospect, I allocated too little time for this tour.† While I was able to finish this tour a day early, I was never comfortable that I had enough time.† As a result, I never felt I had the time to take a day off (or a half day) if something really interesting appeared on the horizon.† As it was, the one half day I did take off was a fortunate side effect of having done more mileage than planned on the previous day.† For my next tour, I hope to allocate more time for side trips or just general lazing around.† On the other hand, the almost 90 daily cycling miles were never boring nor a chore.† I found touring much more enjoyable than other long rides I have done on my regular road bike.† I attribute this to the nature of touring where there is something new to see each day plus the overall goal of finishing the route.
Copyright Denis Kertz, 1994. All rights reserved.